Scienza (news e discussioni)

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Offline Davy_Jones

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Scienza (news e discussioni)
« il: 12 Dic 2015, 22:11 »
secondo me sarebbe bello non cascare su evoluzionismo vs creazionismo almeno nelle prime 10 pagine (arrivarci...), ma si vada dove si deve andare.


tanto per tenersi leggeri comincio cosi':

Sex redefined

The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that.

http://www.nature.com/news/sex-redefined-1.16943


poi per la serie "cose strane pure per uno che ci lavora":

Lab staple agar hit by seaweed shortage

Dwindling algae harvest imperils reagent essential for culturing microbes.

http://www.nature.com/news/lab-staple-agar-hit-by-seaweed-shortage-1.18970

non sapevo da dove viene l'agar (il componente base del terreno su cui si crescono, per dire, i batteri) ne' da quanto tempo e' in uso. forse quelle sono le cose piu' interessanti che si imparano leggendo questo articolo (oltre al fatto che c'e' una grandiosa opportunita' di business con la corea del nord, ma e' un altro discorso...)

Offline Kappa

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http://space.tin.it/scienza/decos
Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #1 il: 15 Dic 2015, 13:13 »
io avrei voglia di riesumare qualcosa sulla fusione fredda e l'e-cat di Rossi...ma mi vergogno.... :=))

Offline cartesio

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #2 il: 15 Dic 2015, 14:19 »
OT La fusione fredda me la ricordavo, ma l'e-cat l'avevo completamente rimosso. EOT

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #3 il: 15 Dic 2015, 16:58 »
http://www.foldscope.com/

a new approach for mass manufacturing of optical microscopes that are printed-and-folded from a single flat sheet of paper, akin to Origami.

articolo correlato (dal new yorker)

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/12/21/through-the-looking-glass-annals-of-science-carolyn-kormann

per chi come me crede che il gap fra i paesi sviluppati e quelli in via di sviluppo sia essenzialmente tecnico o scientifico, questa cosa e' una meraviglia. tutti i bambini del mondo dovrebbero averne uno.

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #4 il: 19 Gen 2016, 09:28 »

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #5 il: 21 Gen 2016, 14:48 »
Per i curiosi dei "paradossi" della meccanica quantistica (tipo il gatto di Schroedinger), ce n'e' uno nuovo di pacca:

Can three pigeons be in two pigeonholes with no two pigeons in the same hole?

http://phys.org/news/2016-01-pigeons-pigeonholes-hole.html

(nell'articolo c'e' il link al lavoro originale)

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #6 il: 22 Gen 2016, 18:44 »
The Man Who Turned Night Into Day

http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-man-who-turned-night-into-day

altri tempi... (?)

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #7 il: 24 Gen 2016, 14:40 »
Why You Should Care About a Prime Number That's 22,338,618 Digits Long

http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2016/01/the_world_s_largest_prime_number_has_22_338_618_digits_here_s_why_you_should.html

per chi volesse contribuire alla ricerca del prossimo: http://www.mersenne.org/

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #8 il: 24 Gen 2016, 21:00 »
Riprovo a proporre un tema di filosofia della scienza. Questa volta da altra fonte, ché magari era quello il problema...

"Giorgio Israel, nel saggio intitolato “Meccanicismo. Trionfo e miserie della visione meccanica del mondo” (appena pubblicato da Zanichelli), esattamente questo criticava: l’idea che la matematica possa sovrastare l’intera esperienza umana. Se i modelli matematici funzionano nella fisica, molti sono i limiti quando si applicano alle scienze sociali. L’ultima crisi economica, imprevedibile a tavolino, sembra confermarlo."
Sabina Minardi, L'Espresso, 12 gennaio 2016

http://espresso.repubblica.it/visioni/cultura/2016/01/12/news/alla-corte-del-re-algoritmo-1.246500


dall'economist di adesso (ultimo di una serie di articoli che dicono circa tutti le stesse cose, iniziati qualche anno fa con la ormai famosa visita della regina elisabetta alla LSE e con la penosa risposta degli economisti della LSE, che li' per li' non avevano saputo cosa dire alla sovrana e quindi hanno risposto per lettera, dopo averci pensato un po', qualche giorno dopo...):


All at sea

Ideological divisions in economics undermine its value to the public

Jan 23rd 2016 | From the print edition

DISMAL may not be the most desirable of modifiers, but economists love it when people call their discipline a science. They consider themselves the most rigorous of social scientists. Yet whereas their peers in the natural sciences can edit genes and spot new planets, economists cannot reliably predict, let alone prevent, recessions or other economic events. Indeed, some claim that economics is based not so much on empirical observation and rational analysis as on ideology.

In October Russell Roberts, a research fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, tweeted that if told an economist’s view on one issue, he could confidently predict his or her position on any number of other questions. Prominent bloggers on economics have since furiously defended the profession, citing cases when economists changed their minds in response to new facts, rather than hewing stubbornly to dogma. Adam Ozimek, an economist at Moody’s Analytics, pointed to Narayana Kocherlakota, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis from 2009 to 2015, who flipped from hawkishness to dovishness when reality failed to affirm his warnings of a looming surge in inflation. Tyler Cowen, an economist at George Mason, published a list of issues on which his opinion has shifted (he is no longer sure that income from capital is best left untaxed). Paul Krugman, an economist and New York Times columnist, chimed in. He changed his view on the minimum wage after research found that increases up to a certain point reduced employment only marginally (this newspaper had a similar change of heart).

Economists, to be fair, are constrained in ways that many scientists are not. They cannot brew up endless recessions in test tubes to work out what causes what, for instance. Yet the same restriction applies to many hard sciences, too: geologists did not need to recreate the Earth in the lab to get a handle on plate tectonics. The essence of science is agreeing on a shared approach for generating widely accepted knowledge. Science, wrote Paul Romer, an economist, in a paper* published last year, leads to broad consensus. Politics does not.

Nor, it seems, does economics. In a paper on macroeconomics published in 2006, Gregory Mankiw of Harvard University declared: “A new consensus has emerged about the best way to understand economic fluctuations.” But after the financial crisis prompted a wrenching recession, disagreement about the causes and cures raged. “Schlock economics” was how Robert Lucas, a Nobel-prize-winning economist, described Barack Obama’s plan for a big stimulus to revive the American economy. Mr Krugman, another Nobel-winner, reckoned Mr Lucas and his sort were responsible for a “dark age of macroeconomics”.

As Mr Roberts suggested, economists tend to fall into rival camps defined by distinct beliefs. Anthony Randazzo of the Reason Foundation, a libertarian think-tank, and Jonathan Haidt of New York University recently asked a group of academic economists both moral questions (is it fairer to divide resources equally, or according to effort?) and questions about economics. They found a high correlation between the economists’ views on ethics and on economics. The correlation was not limited to matters of debate—how much governments should intervene to reduce inequality, say—but also encompassed more empirical questions, such as how fiscal austerity affects economies on the ropes. Another study found that, in supposedly empirical research, right-leaning economists discerned more economically damaging effects from increases in taxes than left-leaning ones.

That is worrying. Yet is it unusual, compared with other fields? Gunnar Myrdal, yet another Nobel-winning economist, once argued that scientists of all sorts rely on preconceptions. “Questions must be asked before answers can be given,” he quipped. A survey conducted in 2003 among practitioners of six social sciences found that economics was no more political than the other fields, just more finely balanced ideologically: left-leaning economists outnumbered right-leaning ones by three to one, compared with a ratio of 30:1 in anthropology.

Moreover, hard sciences are not immune from ideological rigidity. A recent study of academic citations in the life sciences found that the death of a celebrated scientist precipitates a surge in publishing from academics who previously steered clear of the celebrity’s area of study. Tellingly, papers by newcomers are cited far more heavily than new work by the celebrity’s former collaborators. That suggests that shifts of opinion in science occur not through the changing of minds so much as the displacement of one set of dogged ideologues by another.

Agree to agree
But even if economics is not uniquely ideological, its biases are often more salient than those within chemistry. Economists advise politicians on all manner of important decisions. A reputation for impartiality could improve both perceptions of the field and the quality of economic policy.

Achieving that requires better mechanisms for resolving disputes. Mr Romer’s paper decried the pretend “mathiness” of many economists: the use of meaningless number-crunching to give a veneer of academic credibility to near-useless theories. Sifting out the guff requires transparency, argued John Cochrane of the University of Chicago in another recent blog post. Too many academics keep their data and calculations secret, he reckoned, and too few journals make space for papers that seek to replicate earlier results. Economists can squabble all they like. But the profession is of little use to anyone if it cannot then work out which side has the better of the argument.

 

Sources:

"Mathiness in the theory of economic growth", Paul Romer, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 2015.

"The macroeconomist as scientist and engineer", Gregory Mankiw, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2006.

"The moral narratives of economists", Anthony Randazzo and Jonathan Haidt, Econ Journal Watch, 2015.

"Political language in economics", Zubin Jelveh, Bruce Kogut and Suresh Naidu, Columbia Business School Research Paper Number 14-57, 2015.

"How politically diverse are the social sciences and humanities? Survey evidence from six fields", Daniel Klein and Charlotta Stern, Academic Questions, 2004.

"Does science advance one funeral at a time?", Pierre Azoulay, Christian Fons-Rosen and Joshua Graff Zivin, NBER Working Paper 21788, 2015.

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #9 il: 27 Gen 2016, 21:08 »
Why science is failing to alter the future

We have fooled ourselves into thinking that being able to see the future is the same as being able to change it. At times the opposite is true.

http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/health/2016/01/why-science-failing-alter-future
Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #10 il: 29 Gen 2016, 21:38 »

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #11 il: 29 Gen 2016, 21:55 »
Why the calorie is broken

Calories consumed minus calories burned: it’s the simple formula for weight loss or gain. But dieters often find that it doesn’t work. Cynthia Graber and Nicola Twilley of Gastropod investigate.

http://mosaicscience.com/story/why-calorie-broken

divertente articolo da leggere, se non altro se una volta nella vita vi siete chiesti come si fa a sapere che un cibo contiene tot calorie (e soprattutto cosa significa in concreto e se e' veramente utile a qualcosa...)   :pp

Online vaz

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #12 il: 01 Feb 2016, 12:37 »

Offline WE.ARE1900

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #13 il: 01 Feb 2016, 19:39 »
Why the calorie is broken

Calories consumed minus calories burned: it’s the simple formula for weight loss or gain. But dieters often find that it doesn’t work. Cynthia Graber and Nicola Twilley of Gastropod investigate.

http://mosaicscience.com/story/why-calorie-broken

divertente articolo da leggere, se non altro se una volta nella vita vi siete chiesti come si fa a sapere che un cibo contiene tot calorie (e soprattutto cosa significa in concreto e se e' veramente utile a qualcosa...)   :pp
Molto interessante,  soprattutto la storia della flora batterica che incide sulla capacità di assorbimento , grazie per la lettura  :beer:

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #14 il: 05 Feb 2016, 13:30 »
Twitter Nerd-Fight Reveals a Long, Bizarre Scientific Feud

http://www.wired.com/2016/02/twitter-nerd-fight-reveals-a-long-bizarre-scientific-feud/

(si parla di come costruire i cosiddetti "alberi della vita"...)

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #15 il: 05 Feb 2016, 13:35 »
ri-posto questo articolo sull'origine dei deja-vus, che deve essere stato moderato ma non capisco perche' (essendo totalmente in topic)

No, you haven't read this déjà vu story before

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/01/08/health/deja-vu/

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #16 il: 05 Feb 2016, 16:41 »
The Explorers Club Once Served Mammoth at a Meal. Or Did It?

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/04/science/explorers-club-mammoth-dinner.html

 :pp

Offline carib

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #17 il: 06 Feb 2016, 08:21 »

http://www.ilpost.it/2016/02/01/ingegneria-genetica-embrioni-regno-unito/
L'articolo non lo dice ma se non ho capito male è stato scoperto che c'è una similitudine tra il comportamento delle cellule tumorali e quello delle cellule embrionali umane nei primi sette giorni. Il via libera alla ricerca darebbe la possibilità di approfondire questa ipotesi . Ti  risulta?

Offline Davy_Jones

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #18 il: 18 Feb 2016, 17:15 »
What sparked the Cambrian explosion?

An evolutionary burst 540 million years ago filled the seas with an astonishing diversity of animals. The trigger behind that revolution is finally coming into focus.

http://www.nature.com/news/what-sparked-the-cambrian-explosion-1.19379

Offline Hicks

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Re:Scienza (news e discussioni)
« Risposta #19 il: 18 Feb 2016, 20:46 »
What sparked the Cambrian explosion?

An evolutionary burst 540 million years ago filled the seas with an astonishing diversity of animals. The trigger behind that revolution is finally coming into focus.


Mmh.. non so perchè, ma a leggere questo articolo mi tornano alla mente certi racconti Lovecraftiani..
 

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